SAMPLE Research Graphic Organizer


Topic: Animal Rights
Keywords: "animal rights", "product testing", "animal testing", "animal rights movement AND laboratory animals"


Title: ARE ANIMALS EQUAL?
Author: Katie Monagle
Source: SCHOLASTIC UPDATE , pp. 19-21
Database: Sirs Discoverer

Date of Publication: April 16, 1993
Date Found: March 8, 2011
Link: http://discoverer.prod.sirs.com/discoweb/disco/do/article?urn=urn%3Asirs%3AUS%3BARTICLE%3BART%3B0000025300

Information:

CON
"Advocates of animal rights believe those actions are immoral. Animals, they say, feel pleasure and pain in much the same way that humans do. They should have the same right to life and freedom from suffering as people should. Animal abuse, the activists believe, results from "speciesism"--discrimination against other species. They equate speciesism with racism and sexism."

PRO
"In order to have rights, Marquardt says, a creature needs to be a moral being--one that can choose between right and wrong. "Animals can't choose, so they can't have rights."
Marquardt also thinks it only natural that people kill animals for food, clothes, and medicine. "Every species has to look out for itself," she says, "or it will die out. Humans are higher on the food chain than other animals--that's why we eat them."
Research on animals has produced vaccines for polio, tetanus, and scarlet fever; insulin for diabetes; and antibodies to fight infection. While PETA says there are better alternatives to animal testing, such as cell and tissue cultures, most scientists say that no alternatives yet exist to completely replace animal testing. "
"If we stopped all animal research now," says Frankie Trull, president of the Foundation for Biomedical Research, "it would put an end to finding potential cures to a lot of terrible diseases like AIDS, Alzheimer's, and cancer."


Title: Limiting animal research would be cruelty to humans
Author: Trull, Frankie L
Source: Insight on the News 07-29-2002, Volume: 18 Number: 27, Page: 45
Database: elibrary

Date of Publication: 07-29-2002
Date Found: March 8, 2011
Link: http://elibrary.bigchalk.es.vrc.scoolaid.net/elibweb/elib/do/document?urn=urn:bigchalk:US;BCLib;document;54787398


Information:

PRO
"In the United States, the animal-- rights movement is a vocal anti-- research element that discounts the importance of animal studies, claiming that the results of animal research can't be applied to human health. Physicians and researchers overwhelmingly agree, however, that animal systems provide invaluable and irreplaceable insights into human systems because there are striking similarities between our physiological and genetic makeup. "
"Rodents are the model of choice for medical researchers because they have a naturally short life span - two to three years - that allows scientists to observe in "fast forward" what happens during the progress, or pathogenesis, of a disease. Advances in genetic engineering have enabled scientists to develop excellent rodent models for research. The availability of "transgenic" mice (which have added genes) and "knockout" mice (which have disabled genes) has revolutionized our understanding of cancer, Parkinson's disease, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, memory loss, muscular dystrophy and spinal-cord injuries. The so-called "nude" mouse - lacking a functioning immune system - has become an incredibly important model for understanding cancer suppression. "



Title: Animal Research: Why We Need Alternatives
Author: //Hope Ferdowsian//
Source: The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington: .
Database: proquest

Date of Publication: Nov 7, 2010
Date Found: March 8, 2011
Link: http://proquest.umi.es.vrc.scoolaid.net/pqdweb?index=4&did=2185067421&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1299609013&clientId=19673

Information: CON

In that extremely controversial study, researchers used a wide range of methods to subject mice to various levels of pain. They immersed the animals' tails in hot water, used radiant heat on them, attached a binder clip to their tails, injected irritants into their feet, induced bladder inflammation with a chemical that causes painful cystitis in humans, and injected acetic acid, causing the mice to develop abdominal constriction and writhe. They performed surgery on the mice and did not provide postoperative analgesics.
The study's authors developed a Mouse Grimace Scale as a measurement tool to help quantify the level of pain experienced by mice. They concluded that when subjected to painful stimuli, mice showed discomfort through facial expressions in the same way humans do.
This painful experiment raised many questions among researchers. Criticism of the study was covered in a newsletter called Laboratory Animal Welfare Compliance and elsewhere. Critics have maintained that the experiments were cruel and unnecessary.
That study--and the debate surrounding it--highlights critical issues relevant to animal research. For example, mice are now the most commonly used animals in research, but they are not covered by the Animal Welfare Act, one of the few legal protections afforded by U.S. law to other animals used in laboratory experiments.






Title: When Less is Not More
Author: Anonymous
Source: Nature Medicine. New York: Aug 2008. Vol. 14, Iss. 8; p. 791 (2 pages)
Database: proquest
Date of Publication: Aug 2008

Date Found: March 8, 2011
Link: http://proquest.umi.es.vrc.scoolaid.net/pqdweb?index=8&did=1528751241&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1299770616&clientId=19673

Information:
PRO
The investigational use of nonhuman primates has long been a contentious issue. On the one hand, supporters of their use are genuinely convinced that insights derived from the study of monkeys and apes could never be obtained in other spe- cies, and there is a vast literature, particularly in disciplines like systems neuroscience, that supports such a claim.

CON

On the other hand, critics call for a blanket prohibition of experimentation on nonhuman primates on the basis of ethical concerns and of a litany of cases in which observations made in other primates have failed to correspond to the reality of human biology.




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© Elizabeth Cohen 2011